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Module Evaluation: It is the mission of the Texas Alliance for Geographic Education and the National Geographic Society, sponsors of this project, to develop content-rich, knowledge-centered, and learner-centered educational materials. Your evaluation and suggestions about the materials produced in the Linking Early US History to World Geography project are important to improving our products.

Please take a minute to respond to the statements and questions below. You can submit your responses by downloading the WORD form version of this evaluation, filling it out and sending it via email as an attachment to Dr. Sarah Witham Bednarz at s-bednarz@tamu.edu or printing this regular WORD version and mailing to:

Dr. Sarah Witham Bednarz
Department of Geography
MS 3147 TAMU
College Station, Texas 77843

Module 1, Linking History and Geography

Activity 1: Story Maps

The connections between history and geography are close. Yet, the perspectives and ways that geographers and historians view events in the past are very different. Geographers are always interested in the whereness of things and the context in which events unfold—both the human and physical characteristics and ways the context influenced and shaped events. One of the best ways to make students aware of geographic characteristics and context is through maps. In this activity, students learn ways to explore the essential link between geography and history by first placing events in their geographic location and then using this information to produce story maps. A story map is a map richly annotated with geographical and historical detail that explains events or processes.

Details are provided here to create story maps narrating the spatial history of the American Revolution (1775-1776 and 1785-1788) and the Civil War (1861-1865). Students place the locations of a list of significant events on a map and caption the map with what, where, why there and so what information. Creating story maps is a generic cognitive strategy useful in learning other World Geography content as well.

This activity intersects with Module 3.

Download Activity1 Story Maps | Events of 1775-1776 | Master List of Events 1775-1776 | Events of 1785-1788 | Master List of Events 1785-1788 | Events of 1861-1865 | Master List of Events 1861-1865

Activity 2: Founding a Capital

The selection of the site for the capital of the new United States was an exercise in both politics and geography. This activity links the political decision making to the geographic decision making and presents students with an opportunity to understand the factors that influenced the Founders’ spatial thinking. Students use quotes from primary and secondary sources to trace the political decision making process and interpret maps to assess the geographic decisions. At a national scale, situation is used as a guiding concept to select the general area for the capital. At a more local scale, site characteristics are emphasized. The role of George Washington in this process is emphasized throughout.

Download Activity 2: Founding a Capital :Situation and Site

Module 2, Understanding Grievances, Past and Present, Here and Elsewhere

Activity 1: Grievances in the Global Context

This module contains three interrelated parts. In Activity 1, students begin by examining grievances and complaints in a contemporary World Geography context (Tutsis vs. Hutus in Africa) and a historical World Geography context (India). In Activity 2, students analyze the grievances contained in the Declaration of Independence and produce bumper stickers summarizing the key complaints of colonists that precipitated the Declaration. Finally, in Activity 3 students categorize the grievances in order to study the causes of the American Revolution and ways the Constitution and Bill of Rights addressed their complaints.

In Activity 1, students read two briefings and identify the complaints expressed in each.

Download Activity 1 Grievances in the Global Context

Activity 2: Colonial Grievances

This module contains three interrelated parts. In Activity 1, students begin by examining grievances and complaints in a contemporary World Geography context (Tutsis vs. Hutus in Africa) and a historical World Geography context (India). In this Activity, students analyze the grievances contained in the Declaration of Independence and produce bumper stickers summarizing the key complaints colonists had that precipitated the Declaration. Finally, in Activity 3 students categorize the grievances in order to study the causes of the American Revolution and ways the Constitution and Bill of Rights addressed their complaints.

Download Activity 2 Colonial Grievances

Activity 3: Grievances, the Revolution, and the Constitution

This module contains three interrelated parts. In Activity 1, students begin by examining grievances and complaints in a contemporary World Geography context (Tutsis vs. Hutus in Africa) and a historical World Geography context (India). In Activity 2, students analyze the grievances contained in the Declaration of Independence and produce bumper stickers summarizing the key complaints colonists had that precipitated the Declaration. Finally, in this Activity, students categorize the grievances in order to study the causes of the American Revolution and ways the Constitution and Bill of Rights addressed colonists’ complaints.

Download Activity 3 Grievances, the Revolution, and the Constitution

Module 3, Weather and Washington

Activity 1: Valley Forge

This module examines two instances in the life of George Washington in which geography—particularly the weather—played an important role. Each provides students with an example of ways geographic context influenced events in the past which shaped the present, a key TEKS student expectation. Activity 1 uses Valley Forge as an example of the suffering and fortitude General Washington and his men endured in the fateful winter of 1777-1778. In the process, students develop data analysis skills and a better understanding of site and situation. It is adapted from a lesson entitled Valley Forge: Using Primary Sources to Teach Geography which first appeared in Directions in Geography (National Geographic Society 1988). Activity 2 focuses on an event that took place the winter before, when winter weather again played a key role in the events of the American Revolution. In this activity students use the painting Washington Crossing the Delaware as a catalyst to explore different points of view related to this significant Patriot victory.

Download Activity 1 Weather and Washington: Valley Forge | Journal of Joseph Stoudt (Word .doc)

Activity 2: Washington Crossing the Delaware

This module examines two instances in the life of George Washington in which geography—particularly the weather—played an important role. Each provides students with an example of ways geographic context influenced events in the past which shaped the present, a key TEKS student expectation. Activity 2 focuses on an event that took place in the winter of 1776, when winter weather played a key role in the events of the American Revolution. In this activity students use the painting Washington Crossing the Delaware as a catalyst to explore different points of view related to this significant Patriot victory. Activity 1 uses Valley Forge as an example of the suffering and fortitude General Washington and his men endured in the following winter of 1777-1778.

Download Activity 2 Washington Crossing the Delaware | Crossing.ppt | Painting: Washington Crossing the Delaware

Module 4, The March to War: A Geographic Perspective

This activity requires groups of students to conduct research, produce maps and other persuasive graphics, and make oral presentations focused on geographic aspects of the events leading up to the Civil War. You as facilitator, master of ceremonies, or narrator lead the class in an illustrated recounting of the causes and sequencing of actions that resulted in this horrendous, nation-wrenching occasion. Task 1 is an adaptation of an activity from Activities and Readings in the Geography of the United States (ARGUS). You may wish to have all students do Task 1, then assign other tasks to small groups. In addition to concentrating on three TEKS content standards, the activity presents students with numerous opportunities to practice significant social studies skills, including using historical, geographic, and statistical information from a variety of sources to address geographic questions (WG 21 A); designing and drawing appropriate maps and other graphics (WG 22 A); and planning, organizing, and completing a geography-focused research project (WG 23 A).

Download Activity The March to War

Module 5, Beliefs, Principles, and Rights: The United States and the World

In this module students review the beliefs, principles, and rights guaranteed to Americans in the US Constitution (and other documents). Then they compare our foundational documents to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights proclaimed by the United Nations in 1948, distinguishing those rights that are political (political rights) and those rights considered human (civil liberties). To conclude, students work in groups to produce maps identifying which nations in the world are considered FREE, PARTLY FREE, and NOT FREE. An analysis of patterns of freedom in the world today presents students with the opportunity to appreciate our system of government in comparison to the rights and systems of governing people in other nations of the world have. It also gives students a chance to further develop their mental maps and confirm global political, social, and economic patterns.

Download Activity Beliefs, Principles, and Rights: The United States and the World

Module 6: The Revolutionary Era

This activity combines two learning strategies, the living graph and a mystery, to explore the growth of representative government and institutions during the colonial period which ultimately led to the American Revolution. First, students prepare graphs and maps of data and match statements to the different periods of time in order to understand the growth of population and trade during the 1700s. Second, students solve the mystery: Why did Americans revolt against Great Britain? by sorting and reading a series of statements and coming up with a feasible and reasoned answer.

Download Activity The Growth of Representative Government in Colonial Times: A Mystery

Hints to Teach Module 6: Here are three sample graphics produced in Excel which may help you conceptualize potential student products:

Value of Exports to & Imports from Great Britain
Estimated Populations of the Colonies
Total Population by Region, 1700 and 1750

Module 7: Immigration & Urbanization

This module focuses on the strong link between geography and history in the context of two important processes in contemporary US History: immigration and urbanization.

The United States is known as a nation of immigrants. Possessing the world’s third largest population of nearly 300 million people, the U.S. is inhabited overwhelmingly by the direct descendants of immigrants. From 1820 to 1930, the United States received about 60 percent of the world’s immigrants. Approximately 65 million people have migrated to the United States since 1820.

The immigration portion of the module contains two interrelated parts. In Activity 1 students examine patterns of immigration over time. In Activity 2 students examine the movement of migrants between
Europe and the United States. Both activities are found in the single PDF file.

Download Activity 1: Immigration to the United States—Patterns of Immigration Over Time & Activity 2: U.S. Immigration Patterns: People Moving In and People Moving Out | Map of Europe | Map of World

The urban unit consists of four independent but interconnected activities designed to address the core question: What are the spatial and temporal patterns of US urbanization? In Activity 1 (under development) students gain a fundamental understanding of why one settlement grows while others languish. Students consider site and situation characteristics of hypothetical places to predict which will urbanize first. Activity 2 (under development) focuses on the growth of US cities over time. Students map the top 10 cities from 1790 to 2000 and analyze the changes in distribution. Connections to the forces driving these changes, including transportation and technology dominant at each period of time help students to understand processes of urbanization. In Activity 3, “What is a Boomburb?” students study a new urban phenomena, boomburbs, which are large, rapidly growing suburban cities. Activity 4, “The Urban Turnaround, 1950-2000,” compliments Activity 3 by examining the current status of America’s older industrial cities through analysis of decadenal changes in the growth and prospects of the US’s first cities.

Download Activity 3: What is a Boomburb? | Boomburb Powerpoint | Activity 4: The Urban Turnaround, 1950-2000

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